Timeline of Key Events
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Welcome to Caricature Journal.
This page is for the use of collectors, students and those who have a passion for political and satirical papers in the XIXth Century in France. It was a period of relative freedom of press alternated with repressive intervals.
The Caricature Journal is one of the first French political and satirical news print created in 1830 by Charles Philipon. At the time, the subscribers receive a weekly issue made of four pages in which two or sometimes three lithographs are included. Distribution by selling is accommodated by Mr. Gabriel Aubert, Charles Philipon's brother in law, thus copy and prints of the day can be bought at the magasin d'Aubert, galerie Véro-Dodat, for those who cannot afford the 52 F for the one-year subscription.
The development of political caricature was born from the July revolution caused by the rulings of July 25, 1830 under Charles X.
The purpose of this website is to provide a journey from 1830 to 1835 guided by the brillance and courage of Charles Philipon, JJ. Grandville, Honoré Daumier, Forest as well many other audacious artists who are going to break the law and power all along this period.
We hope this site will help you appreciate these great characters of the time and we welcome you in sharing this journey.
P.H. Thompson, Curator.
Cette page est à l'usage des collectionneurs, des étudiants et des passionnés de journaux politiques et satiriques de la France du XIXème siècle où les périodes de liberté relative de la presse alternaient avec des intervalles réprésifs.
La Caricature Journal est l'un des premiers journaux politiques et satiriques français créé en 1830 par Charles Philipon. Les abonnés recoivent alors un journal par semaine qui se compose de quatre pages dans lesquelles deux ou parfois trois lithographies sont incluses. La distribution et la vente sont assurées par Gabriel Aubert, beau-frère de Charles Philipon, ainsi l'exemplaire du jour peut être acheté au magasin d'Aubert, galerie Véro-Dodat, pour ceux qui ne peuvent se permettre les 52 Francs de l'abonnement annuel.
Le développement de la caricature politique est né de la révolution de juillet déclenchée par les ordonnances du 25 juillet 1830 sous Charles X.
Le propos de cette page se définit comme un voyage à travers La Caricature jounal de 1830 à 1835 guidé par le génie et le courage de Charles Philipon, JJ. Grandville, Honoré Daumier, Forest et bien d'autres audacieux artistes qui tout au long de cette période vont transgresser loi et autorité.
Nous espérons que ce site vous aidera à apprécier les grands personnages de ce temps et nous vous souhaitons un bon Voyage!
P.H. Thompson, Conservateur.
Les Ordonnances de Juillet
Les Ordonnances de juillet are a set of five measures promulgated on July 25, 1830 by King Charles X and resulting in the revolution of the “three glorious days”. Concerning the freedom of the press four of these liberticidal measures provided for a procedure of prior authorization, renewable every three months.
Despite the ban, opposition newspapers come out. Police receive the order to put the presses of “le Temps” out of order. The workers seeing their tools of work and symbol of freedom of expression destroyed, scatter while spreading the news throughout Paris streets shouting 'Vive la Charte, à bas les ministres! Long live the Charte, bring ministers down!'. In the afternoon shots explode in order to disperse insurgents. One of them is killed and the reaction is instantaneous; the body is carried out to the outskirts. In the evening barricades are erected and three colored flags hoisted. In spite of the news, the king, persuaded by the uncompromising prime-minister Polignac* refuses to revert the measures but on the contrary reinforces his inflexibility.
As fierce fighting start again in the morning, a delegation is led by Laffite* and Casimir Périer* who go to discuss with the unpopular marshal Marmont*. Polignac lets it be known that he refuses to stop the forces engagements. The army is forced into withdrawal by the extent of the insurrection.
Marmont is entrenched in the Tuilleries* as the rioters control Paris. Marmont runs off to St-Cloud and meets the king as the people invade the Tuilleries. The throne cannot be saved. In addition, as the people of Paris still have not realized the importance and the impact of the revolution that they just accomplished, Thiers*, Laffite and Casimir Périer hasten to turn the people success into a victory of the Bourgeoisie.
July 30 and 31
The Orléanist* propaganda intensifies and in the last day of July, the son of Philippe Egalité (Philippe Duc d’Orléans*) accepts the title of Lieutenant Général of the Kingdom. This choice is confirmed by Charles X.
Charles X abdicates in favor of Henri V, the Duc de Bordeaux
Charles X abdicates in favor of the Duc de Bordeaux, Henri V*. This abdication in favor of his grand-son goes unheeded and Louis-Philippe is established as King of the French People.
Charles Philipon founds La Caricature
First issue of La Caricature morale, littéraire et scénique.
Unhappy weaving loom workers revolt in Lyon
Technical progress brought about by the weaving loom industry leads to the uprising of the weavers in Lyon. Their opposition is directed against the mechanization, the employers and the royal power.
Marshal Soult, the Duke of Orléans and an army enter Lyon
Marshal Soult and Ferdinand Philippe, the Duke of Orléans, attempt to quell the weavers’ revolt. They enter the city leading an imposing army.
A cholera outbreak ravages Paris until April
The six-month outbreak claimed 7,000 lives in the first two weeks and 19,000 in total.
Casimir Périer dies from cholera
Along with the Duke of Orléans, Périer had been visiting people stricken with the disease in hospitals.
General Lamarque's death sparks the June Uprising
General Lamarque’s funeral is the origin of the insurrectionary days June 5 and 6. Lamarque* is another victim of the cholera epidemic.
The Association Mensuelle prints its first lithograph
The Association Mensuelle published a series of caricatures each month that were distrubted to subscribers. Proceeds from the publication were used to pay fees levied against Charles Philipon by the government. The first lithograph is titled, “The French People Delivered to the Vampires Taxes in the Large Budget Pit.”
The king survives an assassination attempt
Caroline of Naples and Sicily, better known as the Duchesse de Berry, is placed under arrest after secretly returning to France in April.
A student named Bergeron is arrested after a failed assassination attempt against Louis-Philippe.
The Siege of Anvers is successfully held by Marshal Gerard in order to support Belgium insurgents against the Dutch.
Louis-Philippe's would-be assassin is acquitted
Bergeron and his alleged co-conspirator are acquitted due to a lack of evidence.
Civil unrest spreads throughout France
The society of Human Rights organizes the second revolt of Canuts.
Following the insurrection in Lyon, unrest spreads to Paris. The government that called for La Tribune to be banned is the catalyst for the insurrection. A bloody suppression of the troublemakers follows.
Note: See Rue Transnonain Daumier DR 135 - LD 135 – HD 310 L’association Mensuelle 10/2/1834.
The Association Mensuelle is dissolved.
A trial is held for the April insurgents
The Duke of Broglie is appointed President of the Council. A trial is held for the April insurgents of 1834.
Louis-Philippe survives another assassination attempt
The king escapes another attempt on his life. The three protagonists are executed on February 19, 1836.
La Caricature is disbanded
La Caricature is disbanded.
The three laws ban all discussion of the monarchy
The three laws promulgated together signal the consolidation of the July Monarchy. The third law aims to prevent all discussions about the king, dynasty and monarchy.
It rationalizes this ban by arguing that the opposition press, with its unremitting written attacks on the king, paved the way for the assassination attempt.